This section will present similarities and differences between medieval armorials and later copies.

As an introduction a discussion of the use of armorials as evidence for the use of a particular coat of arms by an individual or a family is presented. Armorials as evidence will open in a separate window.

Two related papers were presented at symposia im Münster (Germany) and Poitiers (France) during the spring of 2014. As indicated by the titles both papers discuss aspects of whether (or how) medieval armorials may have been prdouced by heralds or by amateur armorists for profit, preferment or for their own reference.

New information is presented on the relations between the members of the Toison d'or group of armorials, especially between the Toison d'or, Bergshammar, and the Heessel compendium or Complainte des hérauts; and between the Bergshammar and the Gelre.

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